Enzymatic Preparation of 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)—A Substitute of Terephthalic Acid—By the Joined Action of Three Fungal Enzymes
Karich A, Kleeberg SB, Ullrich R, Hofrichter M
Microorganisms, 6: 5
Enzymatic oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and its oxidized derivatives was studied using three fungal enzymes: wild-type aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO) from three fungal species, wild-type peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita (AaeUPO), and recombinant galactose oxidase (GAO). The effect of pH on different reaction steps was evaluated and apparent kinetic data (Michaelis-Menten constants, turnover numbers, specific constants) were calculated for different enzyme-substrate ratios and enzyme combinations. Finally, the target product, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA), was prepared in a multi-enzyme cascade reaction combining three fungal oxidoreductases at micro-scale. Furthermore, an oxidase-like reaction is proposed for heme-containing peroxidases, such as UPO, horseradish peroxidase, or catalase, causing the conversion of 5-formyl-2-furancarboxylic acid into FDCA in the absence of exogenous hydrogen peroxide.